OMS, los celulares aumentan riesgo de cáncer cerebral. IARC classifies Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans

La  IARC clasifica A LOs campos de radiofrecuencia como  posiblemente carcinógenos en humanos

El  31 de mayo de 2011 en Lyon, Francia, la OMS y la Agencia Internacional de Investigación sobre el Cáncer (IARC) brindo una conferencia en la que presento sus últimos estudios sobre campos electromagnéticos. En el documento presentado, ha clasificado a los  campos electromagnéticos de radiofrecuencia como posible carcinógeno para los seres humanos (Grupo 2B),  basado en un mayor riesgo de glioma, tumor cerebral maligno, asociado al  uso de teléfonos móviles.

Antecedentes

En los últimos años, ha habido creciente preocupación sobre la posibilidad de efectos adversos sobre la salud de la exposición a campos electromagnéticos de radiofrecuencia, como los emitidos por los dispositivos de comunicación inalámbrica.  El número de suscripciones de teléfonos móviles se estima en 5000 millones a nivel mundial.

Desde mayo 24 al 31 del 2011, un grupo de trabajo de 31 científicos de 14 países se ha estado reuniendo en el IARC de Lyon, Francia, para evaluar los riesgos cancerígenos potenciales de la exposición a  campos electromagnéticos de radiofrecuencia.  Estas evaluaciones se publicarán en el volumen 102 de  Monografías de la IARC, que será el quinto volumen de esta serie para centrarse en los agentes físicos, Tomo 55 (radiación solar), Volumen 75  y Volumen 78  sobre las radiaciones ionizantes (rayos X, rayos gamma, neutrones-nucleidos de radio), y Volumen 80 en las radiaciones no ionizantes (extremadamente de baja frecuencia de los campos electromagnéticos) .

La IARC (Grupo de Trabajo) examinó la posibilidad de que estas exposiciones puedan inducir en la salud a largo plazo efectos, en particular, un mayor riesgo de cáncer.  Esto tiene relevancia para la  salud pública, especialmente para los usuarios de teléfonos móviles, cuyo número de usuarios es grande y cada vez mayor, especialmente entre los adultos jóvenes y niños.

La IARC (Grupo de Trabajo) examinó y evaluó la literatura disponible sobre las  siguientes categorías que supondrían exposición a campos electromagnéticos de radiofrecuencia:

·       la exposición ocupacional a los radares y microondas,
·        exposición a riesgos ambientales asociados con la transmisión de señales de radio, televisión e  inalámbricos de telecomunicaciones,
·        exposiciones personales asociados con el uso de teléfonos celulares.

  La evidencia fue revisada críticamente, y en general evaluada como siendo limitada  entre los usuarios de  teléfonos inalámbricos para el glioma y neuroma acústico, e insuficiente  para sacar conclusiones para  otros tipos de cáncer. 

La evidencia de la exposición ocupacional y ambiental  mencionados anteriormente fue juzgada igualmente inadecuada.  El Grupo de Trabajo no cuantifica los  riesgos, sin embargo, un estudio del uso de teléfonos celulares  (hasta el año 2004), mostró un aumento del 40%  riesgo para los gliomas de la más alta categoría de grandes usuarios, con un promedio reportado de  30 minutos por día  durante un período de 10 años.

Conclusiones

El Dr. Jonathan Samet (University of Southern California, EE.UU.), Presidente del Grupo de Trabajo del Grupo, señaló que "la evidencia,  es lo suficientemente fuerte como para soportar una la clasificación 2B .  La conclusión significa que podría haber algún riesgo, y
 por lo tanto tenemos que mantener una estrecha vigilancia de un vínculo entre los teléfonos celulares y el riesgo de cáncer. "


Communiqué de presse N° 20831/05/2011 -
IARC classifies Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans.
Ecouter Virtual press conference
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Descripción: http://www.iarc.fr/imagesnew/white.gifPRESS RELEASE
N° 208
31 May 2011
IARC CLASSIFIES RADIOFREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AS
POSSIBLY CARCINOGENIC TO HUMANS
Lyon, France, May 31, 2011-- The WHO/International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B), based on an increased risk for glioma, a malignant type of brain cancer1, associated with wireless phone use.
Background
Over the last few years, there has been mounting concern about the possibility of adverse health effects resulting from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, such as those emitted by wireless communication devices. The number of mobile phone subscriptions is estimated at 5 billion globally.
From May 24–31 2011, a Working Group of 31 scientists from 14 countries has been meeting at IARC in Lyon, France, to assess the potential carcinogenic hazards from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. These assessments will be published as Volume 102 of the IARC Monographs, which will be the fifth volume in this series to focus on physical agents, after Volume 55 (Solar Radiation), Volume 75 and Volume 78 on ionizing radiation (X-rays, gamma-rays, neutrons, radio-nuclides), and Volume 80 on non‐ionizing radiation (extremely low‐frequency electromagnetic fields).
The IARC Monograph Working Group discussed the possibility that these exposures might induce long-term health effects, in particular an increased risk for cancer. This has relevance for public health, particularly for users of mobile phones, as the number of users is large and growing, particularly among young adults and children.
The IARC Monograph Working Group discussed and evaluated the available literature on the following exposure categories involving radiofrequency electromagnetic fields:
Ø occupational exposures to radar and to microwaves;
Ø environmental exposures associated with transmission of signals for radio, television and wireless telecommunication; and
Ø personal exposures associated with the use of wireless telephones.
International experts shared the complex task of tackling the exposure data, the studies of cancer in humans, the studies of cancer in experimental animals, and the mechanistic and other relevant data.
1237 913 new cases of brain cancers (all types combined) occurred around the world in 2008 (gliomas represent 2/3 of these). Source:  Globocan 2008
Resu lts
The evidence was reviewed critically, and overall evaluated as being limited2 among users of wireless telephones for glioma and acoustic neuroma, and inadequate3 to draw conclusions for other types of cancers. The evidence from the occupational and environmental exposures mentioned above was similarly judged inadequate. The Working Group did not quantitate the risk; however, one study of past cell phone use (up to the year 2004), showed a 40% increased risk for gliomas in the highest category of heavy users (reported average: 30 minutes per day over a 10-year period).
Conclusions
Dr Jonathan Samet (University of Southern California, USA), overall Chairman of the Working Group, indicated that "the evidence, while still accumulating, is strong enough to support a conclusion and the 2B classification. The conclusion means that there could be some risk, and therefore we need to keep a close watch for a link between cell phones and cancer risk."
"Given the potential consequences for public health of this classification and findings," said IARC Director Christopher Wild, "it is important that additional research be conducted into the long­term, heavy use of mobile phones. Pending the availability of such information, it is important to take pragmatic measures to reduce exposure such as hands-free devices or texting. "
The Working Group considered hundreds of scientific articles; the complete list will be published in the Monograph. It is noteworthy to mention that several recent in-press scientific articles4 resulting from the Interphone study were made available to the working group shortly before it was due to convene, reflecting their acceptance for publication at that time, and were included in the evaluation.
A concise report summarizing the main conclusions of the IARC Working Group and the evaluations of the carcinogenic hazard from radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (including the use of mobile telephones) will be published in The Lancet Oncology in its July 1 issue, and in a few days online.
2 'Limited evidence of carcinogenicity': A positive association has been observed between exposure to the agent and cancer for which a causal interpretation is considered by the Working Group to be credible, but chance, bias or confounding could not be ruled out with reasonable confidence.
3'Inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity': The available studies are of insufficient quality, consistency or statistical power to permit a conclusion regarding the presence or absence of a causal association between exposure and cancer, or no data on cancer in humans are available.
4 a. 'Acoustic neuroma risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study' (the Interphone Study Group, in Cancer Epidemiology, in press)
b.              'Estimation of RF energy absorbed in the brain from mobile phones in the Interphone study' (Cardis et al., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, in press)
c. 'Risk of brain tumours in relation to estimated RF dose from mobile phones – results from five Interphone countries' (Cardis et al., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, in press)
d.'Location of Gliomas in Relation to Mobile Telephone Use: A Case-Case and Case-Specular Analysis' (American Journal of Epidemiology, May 24, 2011. [Epub ahead of print].
For more information, please contact
Dr Kurt Straif, IARC Monographs Section, at +33 472 738 511, or straif@iarc.fr; Dr Robert Baan, IARC Monographs Section, at +33 472 738 659, or baan@iarc.fr; or Nicolas Gaudin, IARC Communications Group, at com@iarc.fr (+33 472 738 478)
Link to the audio file posted shortly after the briefing: http://terrance.who.int/mediacentre/audio/press briefings/
About IARC
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is part of the World Health Organization. Its mission is to coordinate and conduct research on the causes of human cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and to develop scientific strategies for cancer control. The Agency is involved in both epidemiological and laboratorv research and disseminates scientific information through publications, meetings, courses, and fellowships.
If you wish your name to be removed from our press release e-mailing list, please write to com@iarc.fr.
Nicolas Gaudin, Ph.D.
Head, IARC Communications
International Agencv for Research on Cancer World Health Organization
150, cours Albert-Thomas
69008 Lyon
France

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